Table of Contents
|1. How to Form The Gerund||2. Usage of The Gerund|
|3. Use of Gerund After Verbs||4. Using Gerunds to Express a Time Relationship (when).|
|5. Using Gerunds as an Adverb to Explain “how” the action was Done||6. Using Gerund As Noun|
|7. Using Gerund As Adjective in Spanish|
The gerund in Spanish is used by adding “ando” to the root of the verbs ending in “ar” and “iendo” to the root of the verbs ending in “er”. We can also add “iendo” to those verbs ending in “ir” but in this case, the spelling of the verbs change. If the root of the verb ends in a vowel, change “iendo” by “yendo”. For example:
Verbs ending in “ar” comprar – comprando volar – volando tomar – tomando Verbs ending in “er” beber – bebiendo ser – siendo deber – debiendo Verbs ending in “ir” dormir – durmiendo morir – muriendo Verbs ending in a vowel. leer – leyendo oir – oyendo traer – trayendo
The gerund is used mostly used to describe an action that is happening at the moment of speaking in present progressive (perífrasis durative in Spanish) or to talk about an action that was happening at a specific time in the past. The Perífrasis Durativa in Spanish or The Present and Past Progresive in Spanish is used with the verb to be (estar) and the gerund form of the verb “ando”, “iendo”, or “yendo” in Spanish.
Él está comiendo He is eating. Ella está trabajando aquí. She is working here. Ellos estaban corriendo esta mañana. They were running this morning. Está lloviendo fuerte. It is raining hard. Estaba leyendo un libro I was reading a book. Estaban muriendo. They were dying.
Gerunds in Spanish can be used after some verbs when we are telling a story.
Nos fuimos caminando We went walking. Terminamos jugando bajo la lluvia. We ended playing in the rain. Ella se fue llorando. She left crying. Continuo lloviendo por horas. It continue raining for hours Comenzaron cantando “Te amaré” They started singing. “I will love you”
Saliendo de la fiesta tomamos un taxi. Leaving the party, we took a cab. Terminando de comprar, nos encontramos con John. Finishing up the shopping, we meet John. Me rompí el tobillo jugando con mis hermanos I broke my ankle playing with my brothers. Chocaron el auto saliendo del estacionamiento. They crashed the car when leaving the parking lot.
In Spanish, gerunds can be used as an adverb to explain “how” the action was done. In English it is used as “by writing”.
Se hizo famoso cantando en bares. He became famous by singing in bars. Ganó el juego marcando 3 goles. He won the game by scoring 3 goals. Llegaron a casa pidiendo aventones. They arrived home by asking for rides. Compró su casa trabajando duro. He bought his house by working hard.
It is important to understand that sometimes gerunds are different in English and Spanish. It means that they do not always mean “ando”, “iendo” or “yendo” in Spanish. Gerunds can be used as noun but in Spanish they are translated as infinitive which is a verb ending in “ar”, “er” or “ir”.
Nadar es bueno para la salud. Swimming is good for health. Fumar está prohibido aquí. Smoking is not allowed here. Dormir 8 horas es suficiente. Sleeping 8 hours is enough. Trabajar duro me hace feliz. Working hard makes me happy. Tomar agua es necesario Drinking water is necessary.
When the gerund is used as adjective in English, it does not mean “ando”, “iendo” or “yendo” in Spanish either.
La bella durmiente. The sleeping beauty. Él es un hombre trabajador. He is a working man. Ella era una niña llorona. She was a crying baby. Parece un libro interesante. It seems an interesting book. Compró una máquina de coser She bought a sewing machine.